I've been writing software for quite a while now, but the software I write still has bugs. One uses various strategies to avoid bugs, but bugs still creep in. Bugs happens all the time. I sometimes believe only programmers are truly aware how flawed human reasoning really is and how many mistakes a person can make without even noticing. Us prrogrammers are confronted with our own mistakes every day. The real world tends to be more forgiving of slight mistakes than the virtual world of software.
So, your software has a bug.
When you have a bug, you look for its cause. Often you have a pretty good idea about what the problem is, and you know you can fix it quickly. You go in and fix the code, and, perhaps, hopefully, are able to add an automatic test so the code can't break again in the same way in the future. Done.
Often though you have no clue what the problem is. This can happens after you've looked at a likely cause and found out it wasn't that after all. "That's bizarre! That shouldn't happen!" You don't know where to start debugging. You have some ideas about likely causes, perhaps, but you know you are going to have to sit down for this one. What to do then?
One thing that has helped me in this case is the following simple strategy: check the things that are easy to check first. Not because these things are likely to be the cause of the problem -- they may in fact be quite unlikely -- but simply because they're easy to check.
Check stupid things. Perhaps you didn't save the file. Perhaps you didn't restart your program before testing. Check whether you're really working on the right files. Perhaps some symlinks got crossed. Are the versions of the libraries you're using really correct? Check whether the web application that has the bug is really actually being run by the server you thought it was. Perhaps there's another server hanging around serving the buggy app and all your efforts have no effect. Check whether the API you know so very well really works in the way you thought it did. It might be just a one line program to check. Yeah, it's unlikely, but you won't waste a lot of time, so just do it.
Why should we be checking unlikely causes for our bugs? Even if the chance that something is the cause is very small, the chance still exists. And since it's quick and easy to check, just make sure. If it was the cause of the bug, you're lucky and might've saved yourself hours of head scratching only to slap your forehead in the end. If it wasn't the cause of the bug, at least you've not wasted a lot of time to exclude it, and you can move on.
Don't check unlikely causes that are hard to check first. You may end up checking those anyway, as it could be them after all. But not initially. First check the easy stuff.
Also don't check the likely causes first that are hard to verify. You think it's probably a threading issue? Oh no, that's difficult to debug! What if that wasn't the real cause for the bug after all? You've just spent hours testing for it. What if it turned out the bug was really caused by something you thought unlikely to be it, and you could've excluded it with just a minute of work? You would've wished you had spent that minute straight away. It wouldn't have been a big loss if not, and you might've hit the jackpot.
So check the things that are easy to check first.
Of course the best way to deal with bugs is not to create them in the first place. If you find yourself dealing with the same type of bug over and over again, consider whether you can change your way of working to avoid them altogether. But as we all know, there will always be bugs...